Constitutional Development of India under Company Rule
Constitution under British Rule. Constitutional Development of India is a point by point examination of how the Constitution of India has advanced from the 1773 to the 1853. India previously came into contact with the west in the mid eighteenth century when it was visited by the British East India Company. During the nineteenth century, it fell under British colonial rule. The colonial administration in Company Rule was administered by a Governor General until 1857 when the first movement for the independence was started.
Regulating Act of 1773
The course of Centralization in India was started through the Regulating Act of 1773.
- This is the first Act passed by the British Parliament to control and manage the undertakings of the East India Company in India.
- According to this Act, the Governor of Bengal was renamed to the Governor-General and Governors of Bombay and Madras brought under control of Governor of Bengal. Warren Hastings was the first Governor-General. The Governor-General was enabled to make rules and guidelines.
- A Supreme Court was set up at Calcutta in 1774, according to the arrangements of Regulating Act 1773.
Pitts India Act of 1784
In the Constitutional history of India, this Act got numerous huge changes.
- According to this Act of 1784, the regions of East India Company was called as the “British Possessions in India” and a joint Government of British India run by the Crown and Company was set up. The government had a definitive force and authority.
- Governors Councils were set up in Bombay and Madras.
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Charter Act of 1813
It brought an end to the monopoly of East India Company, in the sector of trade with India. Trade with India was opened for all Britishers except the Tea Trade.
Charter Act of 1833
- Governor General of Bengal turned into the Governor-General of India. Lord William Bentick was the first Governor-General of India.
- East India Company set up as a simple administrative body. And the Governor-General was given full power over income, common and military.
- Charter Act of 1833 was the last advance in the Process of Centralization in India, an interaction that started with the Regulating Act of 1773.
Charter Act of 1853
- Civil Service Examination was introduced.
- As per the Charter Act of 1853, Governor General’s Legislative Council came to be known as the Central Legislative Council.
Why do we need a Constitution
Constitution is basically a set of rules to run the administration of a nation. In the time when the company was ruling over India, British Parliament made the acts for East India Company so that they could have a frame to make the rules or constituion for Indians. The rules they made, couldn’t satify Indians even a single time because they were imposed by alien rulers.
So having a constitution is merely not enough, a country should have a constitution made by its people with discussion with its people.
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